India

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The bloom of landscape design in India falls on the period between II and IV c. A.D. Precisely at this time decorative and medicinal plants become the object of study, treatises are devoted to them, they become an irreplaceable attribute of female accessories, the best state minds are occupied with their growing. Gardens with medicinal plants have been maintained since olden times in the mountain regions of India, Iran and Tibet. Medicinal plants were grown by monks - the same monks that formed the powerful system of Tibetan medicine.

From 1526-1858 the bloom of horticulture is observed in the territory of India, where the empire of Great Mughals was located. Symbolic value was given to trees and to landscaping ensembles with the generously decorated ponds (which contained blue tiles) were created at mausoleums. The life of Indian aristocrats was mainly spent in the garden, instead of the house; therefore the requirements for garden structures and accessories increased. Specifically at this time the gardens began to be presented aesthetical requirements, which were not only utilitarian. Gardens designed for the royalty, the priests and the courtiers not only had to be equipped with all of the necessary features for recreation - such as pools, swings and benches - but also had to delight the eye with whimsical combinations of different vegetation. The cells with the birds were hung up on the branches of trees, in the ponds the swans swam, and proud peacocks walked about along the paths.

The inhabitants of Kashmir were especially famous for their excellent skill in the construction of gardens. Each luxurious palace was surrounded by an ingenious system of terraces and pools made from coloured marble, and the complex geometry of numerous paths and alleys still strikes the imagination. Descriptions of gardens on the terraces - which resemble the famous Gardens of Semiramis - can be found, this indicates that the Kashmir gardeners widely used container floriculture and achieved huge success with them.

Furthermore, Kashmir was famous for floating gardens. They were created by cutting off the base of the grass growing on the bottom of a lake and connecting it into the thick mats which then were fastened to thin posts driven into the bottom of a lake. Mats were covered with a layer of soil with a thickness of more than half a meter. On such floating garden beds cucumbers and melons were grown as well as flowers.

In the same style is built the Shalimar Garden in Lahore (40 acres(16.2 ha)) in 1642, modern day Pakistan by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan; Pinjor Garden or Yadavindra Garden in North India is built by Patiala Dynasty Rulers; Nishat Garden of Kashmir, India (44acres (17.8 ha)) was built in 1633  and offers a splendid view of the Dal Lake as well as the snow capped Pir Panjal mountain range. The garden has terraces with a beautiful water channel flowing right in the middle of the garden, blooming flowerbeds, trees and fountains.

Very often a luxurious house after death of owner became his mausoleum. The most known palace converted into the mausoleum is Taj Mahal (1630-1652) located in Agra and recognized “the jewel of Muslim art in India”. The tomb is set on a great white platform with the size of 42 acres (17 ha) and completes the vast, symmetrical ground plan. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The long narrow canal in marble, lined by pencil-thin cypresses on either side and terraces decorated by numerous remarkably beautiful flower gardens is located in the front of the white Marble mausoleum. When the fountains play the building appears to shimmer in their droplets, the mausoleum inspires awe. The Taj garden is enclosed to east and west by massive battlemented walls with ornamental arches and crenellations inlaid with marble. Within is a classical chahar bagh, divided into quarters by broad, shallow channels with a red sandstone pavilion at the end of both cross axes, and a raised marble tank at the center. The tomb's floral designs in marble and inlays of semiprecious stones are well known. Taj Mahal is one of the greatest Indian gardens of the peace.  

Interesting to note that it two years after the completion of the Taj Mahal house and big reflection pond, in 1654, famous André Le Nôtre for the first time used in the center of his parks the reservoir, designed so as to reflect entire facade of castle.  

Indian civilization gave birth to Buddhism, with which began the creation of monastery gardens. Worshiping trees was an ancient custom of the Hindus.In the sacred Hindu books the Lumbinetsky garden is mentioned, which was the property of the Hindu kings. In the first period of the spread of Buddhism in India the construction of gardens and parks, intended for contemplative leisure, began. In the parks there were ponds of amazing beauty that had open gazebos which were light on the eyes and flower gardens that were organized using the principles of Zen. This was complete failure of the utilitarian purpose of a garden. This park embodied the idea of the unity of man and nature.